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Theory and Evidence (Part 1)

By Richard Gunther


The theories of evolution as opposed to the evidence of creationism.

The theory is stated in the first line, followed by the creationist reply in the subsequent lines.

Opals are the result of slow, gradual changes in minerals which occur over very long periods, perhaps thousands of years.

Dr. Len Cram has managed to grow opals in a matter of a few months. He uses apparatus in his backyard laboratory. All he does is mix together the right common chemicals - no heat or pressure or millions of years is needed.

He was awarded an honorary doctorate by a secular university for his work.

Animals are most likely to adopt or protect youngsters they are closely related to, as this is the best way to preserve a gene pool.

A genetic study of polar bears has shown that cubs which are completely unrelated are often adopted by female bears.

Genetic variation is a very important part of evolution, because organisms have to change to keep up with the changing environment.

Wollemi pines have been discovered in Australia, which are strong, healthy and producing viable seeds, yet these trees are said to be 150 million years behind the times. Their DNA shows no difference between any of the 40 trees, even though some of them are 40 kilometres apart.

Genetics are no friend of the evolutionist. At the same time that Darwin was claiming that creatures could change into other creatures, Gregor Mendel was showing that even individual characteristics remain constant. While Darwin’s ideas were based on erroneous and untested ideas, Mendel’s conclusions were based on careful experiments and observation. Only by ignoring the total implications of modern genetics has it been possible for evolutionists to keep to their beliefs.

There are three main areas in which genetics prevent evolution:

1. The environment cannot alter the genetic code. The organism may alter to suit the environment, but only as far as already installed information will allow. For example a creature may adapt to cold by growing more hair or fat, but this is not because of an increase in information, but simply the use of information which was already there.

2. Recombination cannot produce any new genetic information. All recombination does is shuffle the information which is already there - as one might shuffle cards. For example, from 1800 plant breeders tried to increase the sugar content of sugar beet, (then at 6%) which they did, but after 75 years they could not increase the level beyond 17%. This was because all the genes for sugar were gathered into one variety.

3. Mutation never produces new information. Mutation is a mistake in the copying process. Most mutations are not noticeable, while others are harmful or lethal. For example, since 1910 the fruit fly (drosophilia melanogaster) has been bred and damaged genetically to produce mutations, yet not one has been beneficial. The only useful mutations are those which enable the creature (or plant) to reproduce without the usual competition, such as wingless beetles on a windy island - they could not be blown out to sea to drown, or bacteria resistant to penicillin. But in every case there is a loss of information, not a gain. If there was a gain, then evolution might have something to present as a mechanism for beneficial change, but because it is always a loss, there still remains no known mechanism for evolution.

Some people think that a deliberate change to the parent will eventually produce modified offspring. For example snipping puppy’s tails, or dehorning cattle, or binding the feet of girls, or circumcision, or wearing earrings. The fact is mutilation of a parent never affects the offspring because the genes determine the offspring. This is why no amount of stretching will add another bone to a giraffe’s neck, and no amount of training will produce children of any noticeable difference compared to a parent who just sits around all the time.

Vestigial organs are the remains of an evolutionary past.

All the so-called vestigial organs in Man, (over a hundred) once declared to be 'leftovers' from an evolutionary past, have now been acknowledged as vital, important or essential to the efficient running of our bodies.

Blind fish, which are the descendants of seeing fish, do not demonstrate evolution because the sightless fish, from which the blind progeny descended, has lost information rather than gained it. Loss of information is evidence of the second law of thermodynamics - complex degrading into less complex, not evolution, which requires increasing complexity.

Blind fish, living as they do in dark caves underground, are not subject to the same survival conditions they would experience above ground. However, if they were placed back in the ‘wild’ they would quickly disappear, because blindness is not an advantage amongst seeing fish.

Hair on human embryos is not an expression of primate ancestry. Lanugo, the soft, downy covering, often visible on premature babies, grows from the same follicles from which adult hair grows, and from which, eventually, hair stops growing in old age at the commencement of baldness.

Lanugo, (embryonic) vellus (short and fine) and terminal hair (longer and darker) all grow from the same number of follicles as exist in the womb. If lanugo was a throwback to primate ancestry, humans ought to develop many more new follicles as they grow, but they do not.

The appendix was once thought to serve no useful purpose because it was seen as a vestigial (passing away) leftover of evolution. But now the appendix is known to be a highly specialised organ with a rich blood supply containing a high concentration of lymphoid follicles - these are part of the immune system. The appendix is located at the junction of the large and small bowel. The colon, which is loaded with useful bacteria, passes these bacteria on to the small bowel, where they are potentially harmful. This is where the appendix helps to control things (during early childhood) by controlling what comes through. It also manufactures antibodies.

Distribution of life on the planet shows that evolution has occurred in different places at different rates.

The present distribution of life is the result of migration, survival factors and adaptability. Many creatures which disembarked from Noah’s Ark died out quickly, while others managed to make it across land bridges, or across oceans, to settle in other places. As they moved they adapted to the changing conditions. The strongest survived, while the weakest died out. The gene pool which God has installed in all living things gives them flexibility - they can develop to a certain extent to meet the challenges of a changing climate, or the arrival of certain predators. This in no way demonstrates evolution, since no new information is added. What it does show is the ability of genes to express different features, which sometimes give organisms an advantage.

The Galapagos Islands, where Darwin formulated some theories, do not demonstrate evolution, but instead show variety within a species. Darwin’s finches, all with their different beaks, show how the genes in the finch can express themselves in a variety of shapes. In a similar way dogs, horses, cats, wheat, sugar beet and grapes have all been carefully bred to bring out desired features, to the suppression of undesired features. This in no way demonstrates evolution, because all that has happened is a selection from already existing information.

Einstein was a Christian.

By a Bible definition Einstein was not a Christian. He wrote "I cannot conceive of a God who rewards and punishes his creatures, or has a will of the kind that we experience in ourselves. Neither can I nor would want to conceive of an individual that survives his physical death; let feeble souls, from fear or absurd egoism cherish such thoughts."

He also wrote " During the youthful period of mankind’s spiritual evolution human fantasy created gods in man’s own image . . . The idea of God in the religions taught at present is a sublimation of that old concept of the gods. . . . In their struggle for the ethical good, teachers of religion must have the stature to give up the doctrine of a person God . . ." (Ideas and Opinions by Albert Einstein, Crown Publishers, NY, USA pages 36-39. 1954)

In the book ‘The Universe and Dr. Einstein’ Victor Gallanzc Ltd, London, UK page 95. 1953 Einstein summarised ‘God’ as "a superior reasoning power" and his opinion of the Bible : "A conflict arises when a religious community insists on the absolute truthfulness of all statements recorded in the Bible".

Most fossils are ancient - dating back millions of years.

Fossils are the remains of a plant or animal, quite often preserved in rocks. There is no time limit attached to them, though assumptions are often made.

A fossil may be formed by refrigeration (Arctic mammoths), carbonisation (leaves in coal), cast (dinosaur footprints in petrified mud), mineralisation of bones, teeth or shells.

All a fossil usually does is present evidence for the death of something that once lived. As no-one was there at the time with a clock, all dating systems are based on assumptions. If we come to a fossil already assuming that it is ‘ancient’ we will tend to adjust our dating methods to fit our assumption. If we assume that the Bible is correct, then we will arrive at a maximum age of about 6000 years for any fossil.

There are no transitional forms in the fossil record to show the evolution of one organism into another. If the fossil record represents millions of years of evolution, there should be millions of transitional forms.

The circular reasoning of evolutionists goes like this : I believe the rock is 35 millions years old, therefore the fossil must be 35 million years old. Or : I believe the fossil is 35 million years old, therefore the rock is 35 million years old.

Marine fossils are the result of death, and subsequent burial on ocean or lake beds by silt and other deposits.

When a marine organism such as a fish dies it does not sink, but rises towards the surface, where it disintegrates. What remains may sink to the floor, but in pieces. Marine fossils show evidence of rapid burial before decay, while still healthy and intact, which indicates that the organisms did not have time to decay, or float before they were preserved. For example a well-preserved ichthyosaur 4.5 metres long, discovered in a Yorkshire quarry, still with the remains of a squid in its stomach. Another fossil has been found of an ichthyosaur giving birth.

Flat earth. It was once believed by some people that the earth was flat.

The Bible has long held that the world is not flat. Isaiah 40:22 "It is He that sits upon the circle of the earth . . ." Circle = arch, vault, compass. In this verse the word circle suggests a three-dimensional curving surface, rather than a flat plane.

The continents as we see them today are billions of years old.

Under current erosion processes, all the land masses in the world above sea level would be completely gone in about 10 million years. Mountain uplift is too slow to compensate for this, and no known theory can devise a way to replace the land masses faster than erosion removes them.

Stalactites and stalagmites take thousands of years to form.

Substantial stalagmites and stalagmites have been found growing after only 50 years in mining tunnels and elsewhere.

In the early 1950’s a worker at Australia’s Jenolan Caves in New South Wales placed his lemonade bottle in one of the limestone caves. By 1980 (30 years later) a coating of calcite about 3 mm thick had already formed over the surface of the bottle.

Rapid stalactite formation has been recorded in tropical areas mainly because of higher rainfall. The spectacular formations in the world’s limestone caves could have formed in just a few thousand years.

The oceans are immensely old.

Each year the earth’s rivers and streams add millions of tonnes of salt to the sea, and only a fraction of this goes back to the land. Working backwards we find that the oceans must have been almost freshwater only a few thousand years ago. If the oceans are as old as some people say, they should be a lot saltier, but their saltiness indicates that they are actually quite young - only a few thousand years young in fact.

Petrification takes thousands or millions of years.

In Western Australia there is a petrified waterwheel, which took only 60 years to change from wood into stone. Water, carrying dissolved limestone, dripped night and day on to the waterwheel, gradually filling the wood with rock particles until all but two paddles are now solid rock.

In Eureka Springs Gardens, Arkansas there are petrified flour sacks, collected from the Blue Spring mill. The bags of flour were turned into stone, as all the air spaces in the flour were filled with tiny calcium carbonate crystals, then their cloth covering rotted and fell away, leaving the replicas complete with the stitch marks and fabric impressions.

An old bottle, entombed in conglomerate rock is on display in the Maritime Museum, Cape Town, South Africa. It was found in 1986 by divers, in the wreck of the British troopship HMS Birkenhead, which went down in 1852. The conglomerate rock is solid, and contains bits of a ceramic jar, basketware, iron objects which have corroded, pebbles and shell fragments. Impressions of other bottles are also visible. After only 130 years this old bottle and its surrounding rock testify to the short time rock needs to form.

A partially destroyed clock was found encased in solid rock and seashells in 1975, by Dolores Testerman, just a short way from the South Jetty, Westport, Washington, USA.

Ship’s bells were found recently about 50 metres down (170 feet) off the coast of Victoria, Australia. These metal bells have become firmly encased in solid rock. They come from the wreck of the wooden sailing ship Isabella Watson, which sank off the coast in 1852, yet in only a few years the bells have become encased in rocks, shells and sediment. (The specimen is in the Maritime Archaeological Unit of Heritage Victoria)

A roll of modern fencing wire was found on Eighty Mile Beach, in the north of western Australia by Amy Lewis, the 11 year old daughter of the local caravan park owners. The roll was 70 cm (2.3 feet) in diameter and weighed 75 kg (165 lb.) The wire, which had become totally encrusted in solid rock also containing seashells, was probably discarded between 1920 and 1970. If the rock had not contained the wire it might have been assumed by evolution-minded people that it was millions of years old, and the sea shells in it would have been ‘dated’ accordingly.

At 1.40 a.m. on the morning of June 10 1886 Mt. Tawarewa erupted and destroyed the famous pink and white terraces. Nearby, a town called Wairoa which was also destroyed, but since then some of its buildings have been excavated, and some of the artefacts found in them have been quite surprising. For example a petrified bowler hat, a petrified sandwich and a petrified ham have been found. There are also solid rock sausages (?). Some of the local Maori used to make money out of selling petrified articles - made from things they left in the water of the pink and white terraces, and there was also tourist graffiti - hundreds of names including that of Sir George Gray an early Governor of NZ - were scribbled on the silica and soon became encased in silica. There was even a sheet of newspaper.

The pink and white terraces demonstrate how quickly petrifaction can happen.

A world-wide flood is most unlikely, and there is no evidence for one.

Many nations have garbled versions of the Biblical flood. Some of these include the Aztecs of Mexico, the Sumerians, in the epic of Gilgamesh recovered from tablets excavated in Iraq, the North American Indians (i.e. Choctaw tribe and others), the Australian Aborigines, the Chinese, the Bahnars - a primitive tribe of Cochin, China, the Incas of Peru, the Africans, the Egyptians, the Teutonic tribes of Scandinavia, etc.)

There are at least 500 legends of a worldwide flood, all of which carry many similarities with the Biblical account.

Geological evidence for a global flood includes such things as : huge canyons such as the Grand Canyon, the presence of riverbeds which continue down under the sea from the land, the horizontal steps cut into the edges of continents where the sea level once was, vast fossil beds containing the remains of billions of fish, or plants, animals and/or other organisms; the presence of sedimentary rock, (of which about 80% of all land above sea level comprises), fossilised layers of coal (carbonised wood), oil deposits (comprising water and organic materials trapped under hardened sediment), and natural gas.

When a typical area of rock strata is found it is usually clearly banded, as each successive layer of minerals was dropped. Quite often the layers are folded, but it is very interesting to notice that the sharp curves and loops are very often smooth. This indicates that the folding took place while the layers were still comparatively soft and malleable - not millions of years later, when the rock was hard and dry. If the folding occurred long after the sediments set hard, the folds would have cracks and fractures running through them. The absence of fracturing is evidence that the layers were produced quickly and followed almost immediately by folding.

Another interesting things is the fact that the layers are usually fairly even. If each layer was followed by another layer thousands or millions of years later, erosion would have cut into the sediments and changed their shapes dramatically. In folded areas the ‘valleys’ would tend to be thicker than the ‘hills’ - yet no such thing is visible. The layers have been formed without a sign of erosion. For example the Grand Canyon. 100,000 square miles across yet many of the strata run horizontally parallel from one side to the other.

The Flood was local and through time and retelling became exaggerated.

Starting from the point of view of believing the Bible :

- if the Flood was local, why did Noah bother to build an Ark?

- if the Flood was local why did God bother to save a few animals in the Ark?

- if the Flood was local why were birds brought on board the Ark, and how could the waters rise 15 cubits above the mountains?

- if the Flood was local, then many people missed out on the judgement, and Jesus was wrong when he referred to it as a sign of judgement on "all" men (Matt.24:37-39)

- if the Flood was local, then God has repeatedly broken His promise never to send another flood.

Life arose by a chance meeting of various inanimate chemicals in a 'primeval soup’. (spontaneous generation)

Louis Pasteur proved that life comes only from life. In his experiments with fermentation, on behalf of the wine industry, he discovered that fermentation was the result of contamination by air-born microorganisms. Pasteur performed many experiments with fermentable materials in specially sealed flasks. When the flasks were sufficiently heated they would no longer ferment, but the seal was broken they would.

Microbes come from microbes. Life comes from life. Because of Pasteur’s work such things as antiseptics, disinfection and sterilisation were understandable. If microbes were spontaneously generated, no amount of antiseptic would have helped, but in every case where all life was cleansed from away, no new life arose unless in came from external contamination.

Problems with the primeval soup theory :

1. Molecules and chemicals react in mechanical ways, and in no way perform as complex a manoeuvre as to produce the immense complexity of a living cell, containing the thousands of separate functions and responses necessary for it to be called a living entity,

2. Even if a simple amino acid was formed, the heat of the water would soon dissolve it. Without a protective membrane, all the contents of a cell would leak out. A living cell is too complex to arise by chance, and without all the part fully functional from the start, the cell cannot replicate or adapt,

3. Even if a life form did arise in a 'primeval soup’, the conditions necessary to make that soup would destroy the life form,

4. RNA (ribonucleic acid), even if it were possible to form without outside help, could not survive unprotected as it is extremely unstable,

5. The building blocks of proteins come in left-handed and right-handed forms. Living things can use ONLY left-handed forms. If a protein had only one right-handed molecule it would not function. DNA and RNA are pure right-handed sugars. A single left-handed molecule in a right-handed DNA or RNA would destroy it. So proteins must be pure left-handed and DNA and RNA must be pure right-handed - an exact 50-50 mixture. The chances of a living cell arising under these conditions by accident is nil.

6. The Law of Biogenesis, as stated by Rudolf Virchow (one of the greatest names in the history of medicine and a contemporary of Pasteur) states "omni cellules e cellules" = all cells come from other cells. Thousands of experiments, and all of the recently gained knowledge of molecular biology and genetics, have only served to strengthen this fundamental law of biology.

World famous physicist, author and evolutionist professor Paul Davies admitted (in 2000) "There is no known law of physics able to create information from nothing." He acknowledges that chemical evolution provides no explanation for the appearance of life, that throwing energy at amino acids will not produce delicate chain molecules, that life is an "information processing system" not a matter of random arrangements of molecules, and that "it is the software of the living cell that is the real mystery, not the hardware".

The slow rate at which coral grows shows that the earth must be millions of years old.

Charles Darwin saw coral atolls in the south seas which were more than 1000 metres thick and concluded that they must be millions of years old. He assumed that coral grows very slowly. However, coral can grow about one metre in 20 years, which gives the atolls plenty of time to form after 4 and half thousand years after the Great Flood.

A coral plant was found growing on an adult’s shoe left underwater for four years. The coral was already about half the width of the shoe.

A cat and a giraffe both have seven bones in their necks. This shows that they both had the same mammalian ancestor.

God used the same pattern for many animals, modifying it to suit each one according to the habitat and abilities He wanted the animals to have. However, homology does not prove origin. For example two similar cars need not come from the same factory. On the other hand, the same factory may make, from similar parts, an off-road car and a city car.

In the case of cats and giraffes, the three-toed sloth (another mammal) has 9 or 10 neck bones, while the two-toed sloth and the manatee both have six. (Enc.. Brit.) Chest numbers in mammals range from 9 to 24, and lower back bones number from 2 to 21. God may modify his own designs, or change them as He sees fit.

Evolution is driven partly by tooth and claw, i.e. Death and bloodshed, cruelty and merciless behaviour.

Nature actually shows a tremendous amount of co-operation. Many plants and animals are totally dependent on each other (for example the yucca plant and yucca moth). Elephants will go to huge lengths to protect and help their young. Polar bears will adopt cubs from other polar bear mothers. Dogs are well-known for their ability to help strangers. Domesticated cats and budges will play together. Some tame lions prefer not to eat meat at all.

The reason we have carnivores today is because of the original sin by Adam and Eve. Before Adam sinned Nature was in complete harmony, (herbivores) but after sin entered the world, aggressive behaviour began to occur, leading to the present conditions.

There were many Ice Ages, which happened over many thousands of years, caused by all sorts of things including dust clouds from volcanic eruptions and meteorite strikes.

The only evidence for at least one single Ice Age is clear to see. Huge deposits of lime, gravel and sand in northern Europe. It is merely an assumption that these deposits were formed over many thousands of years by multiple advances and retreats by ice.

It is a common misconception that an Ice Age is caused by a cooler earth. The reverse is the case. Warmer oceans would produce higher precipitation, i.e. snow, which would cause the rapid formation of, glaciers and ice flows. The theory that a meteorite could throw huge amounts of dust into the sky and thus freeze the planet causing an Ice Age is wrong. The oceans would cool down too, so precipitation would fall.

These conditions prevailed directly after the Flood. The great "fountains of the deep", and volcanic eruptions warmed the seas and caused rapid evaporation, which led to huge snowfall rates. For several hundred years after the Flood the Ice Age continued until the seas cooled, which led to the retreat of the glaciers. Today’s glaciers are the remnant of once mighty rivers of ice.

After the Flood the atmosphere was probably quite polluted by drifting dust and ash from the volcanic activity which accompanied the Flood. This obscuring cloud would have reflected a lot of the sunlight away from Earth, thus helping to cool the air, which would have aided the accumulation of snow and ice.

Coal formed very slowly in swamps or bogs as layer after layer of peat was laid down and compressed.

The evidence totally contradicts this theory. Although it is true that peat does slowly accumulate in swamps (between 1-4 mm per year) the compression rate is such that it would take about 1500 years to produce 1-4mm of solid coal.

Cross-sections of coal-bearing land show the following features :

1. Forking of seams. That is, no continuous horizontal layers, but many oblique layers coming in and bisecting the horizontal lines. This indicates rapid formation by violent water movement.

2. Solid wood deposits. Whole tree trunks, stripped of leaves and roots, layered together and compressed in hugs heaps.

3. Tree and plant deposits with some vertical tree trunks standing vertically in the horizontal layers. This indicates that the vertical trunks were buried rapidly before they could decay while the horizontal layers were piled up around them. Again, this speaks of violent water movement, not thousands of years of gradual growth.

4. The sheer size and depth of coal deposits. One Welsh mine is over 1 mile thick. This indicates unprecedented catastrophe, with enormous amounts of wood being carried, dropped and buried rapidly. Nothing of the sort has been observed today, and no peat swamp could ever produce the same effect.

When Mt. St Helens erupted, a large number of trees were washed into Spirit Lake, where they formed a floating mat, which gradually became waterlogged and sank (and is still sinking) to the bottom. The sunken wood is forming a layer of wood which looks similar to the formation found in coal seams - some trees are horizontal while others are standing upright, stripped of their leaves and roots.

Coal takes thousands or millions of years to gradually accumulate and form.

Heating wood, water and acidic clay at 150 degrees C from 4-6 weeks in a sealed tube with no added pressure forms high-grade coal.

Stone tools show that Man used to be primitive before he progressed to more complex things, such as agriculture and trades.

Stone tools have been found in Tanzania, France and other places, but over the years other things have also been found near the tools which have spoiled the evolutionary view that only very ‘primitive’ people used them. Simple tools does not equate with primitive humans. For example stone tools were found in the same locality as pottery and hut circles, and today the Turkana tribesmen still use a stone chopper to break open the nuts of the doum palm.

The reason why humans have long used stone tools is because such tools are (1) strong, (2) resilient, (3) the best tools for the job, (4) reasonably easy to make from common materials, (5) actually a sign of great intelligence.

The so-called ‘hand-axe’ - a teardrop-shaped piece of stone with a sharp edge all round one plane and a sharp point - was probably thrown like a discus. Models were tested by Eileen O’Brien of the University of Georgia. She found that "the hand-axe spun horizontally as it rose, like a discus. However when it reached its maximum altitude it flipped on to its edge and descended that way. It landed on its knife edge 93% of the time and it landed point first 70% of the time".

Peppered moths show evolution in action.

As tree trunks became darkened by soot from the Industrial Revolution, the peppered moths which happened to be darker obtained better camouflage from birds and so these became more numerous than lighter versions. This of course is not evolution, but survival of the fittest, as there were still light and dark versions of the same moth after the Industrial Revolution.

Also, it has now been revealed that the scientists who studied the moths could not find moths resting on the trees so they caught some and glued or pinned them on, to support their theory with suitable photographs. The moths never rest on the tree trunks during daytime anyway, so the entire theory was blown to pieces.

DDT resistance by insects shows evolution in action.

More than 15 years ago, leading evolutionary biologist Francisco Ayala wrote "resistance to one or more pesticides has been reported in at least 225 species of insects and other arthropods. The genetic variants required for resistance to the most diverse kinds of pesticides were apparently present in every one of the populations exposed to these manmade compounds". (Scientific American, Sep.1978, page 57)

What happened was that resistant insects survived while non-resistant insects died. The survivors passed on the genetic information for this resistance which therefore became more prominent in subsequent generations. No new information was added to the insects, so no evolution occurred.

All the information inherent in DNA arose by chance.

The presence of information in coded form indicates intelligent arrangement of non-informational units in such a way as to convey something intelligent. The units themselves are not intelligent - for example the letters of an alphabet, the dots and dashes in Morse code, the positions of the flags in semaphore, the encryption of computer messages into binary signals, and human speech which uses the code of sound waves.

There are two agents involved in the sending of a coded message. The first is the Sender - who must arrange inanimate objects (or whatever) in such a way as to put some idea or message into a coded form. The other agent is the Recipient, who must be able to decode the symbols and respond in a suitable way to the message.

In the case of reading, the human brain decodes the letters. In the case of Morse code the human decodes the sounds. In the case of DNA the molecules are decoded to produce life.

The DNA code is written with four types of ‘letter’ - the nucleotides. The nucleotides form 20 types of protein, and many amino acids. Each group of 3 DNA ‘letters’ forms a codon. The codons are arranged along the DNA spiral in a specific sequence. The information is not in the molecules themselves, but in their sequence.

A living organism always reproduces itself. The mechanisms involved in maintaining all the functions of a living organism are enormous - reproduction, maintenance, repair, respiration, digestion, locomotion, self-preservation, problem-solving . . . all these functions are written into the DNA code. (Strange how so much effort has gone into finding signs of ‘intelligent life’ in the universe, when right under our noses the DNA code reveals immense intelligence!)

The "days" of Genesis are symbolic, and refer to long ages.

1. Each "day" in Genesis is "yom" in Hebrew. This is the same word used for "day elsewhere in the Bible.

2. Each day is qualified by the words "the evening and the morning" This indicates that they were each normal 24 hour days.

3. The word "day" is used in the sabbath law, where God is said to have rested on the seventh "yom". This indicates that the seventh day was the same as all the others, and relates to our week precisely.

4. Jesus believed the Law of the sabbath and accepted the days as normal 24 hour days.

5. If the "days" of genesis were too long, many of the parts of ecology which depend on other parts, i.e. plants (for example) would not have survived while the other parts they depended on were still uncreated. (i.e.insects for pollination)

6. Genesis is written as historical narrative, not poetry or myth. The structure and form is straightforward and simple.

7. If God had wanted to tell us that the "days" were ages, He could have used other Hebrew words, such as ‘olam’ or ‘le olam’ or ‘ad tamid’ or ‘shanah’ or ‘yom rab’ but He chose ‘yom’ and qualified it with ‘evening and morning’.

Limestone and chalk are proof of long ages of slow deposits.

The White Cliffs of Dover are one of many good examples of a chalk or limestone deposit. This rock comprises mainly microscopic shells of organisms (hence the assumption that there was a cretaceous age, from creta = chalk) One main problem with this theory is that these tiny shelled creatures accumulate too slowly to form such huge deposits. However, if one takes into account a global Flood, with huge amounts of energy released in moving water, it is highly likely that light shells could have been swept together and deposited in the numbers now seen today in various parts of the world.

Further confirmation of this view is seen in the Cliffs themselves. The deposits are layered like all sedimentary rock is, which indicates that it was water which formed it.

Living fossils are remnants of an ancestry which stretches back millions of years.

When a living plant or animal matches a fossil, the evolutionist is caught with a problem. Take the tadpole shrimp for example. Fossils of this little creature have been dated at 250 million years, yet living tadpole shrimps are identical to the fossils. The problem is :

1. The tadpole shrimp has not changed at all in 250 years, which contradicts evolution,

2. The fossils are not as old as evolutionists claim.

Just how long it takes to turn a bone into a fossil - a permineralised bone, is a matter of debate. Modern bones which fall into mineral springs are permineralised in a matter of weeks. Dinosaur bones may not be much older than a few thousand years. To say that they are millions is to express an assumption without evidence. In most dinosaur fossils, the bone is still mostly bone. In others the bone has been replaced by minerals.

Dinosaur bones found in Alberta, Canada, were encased in ironstone nodules shortly after being buried and were, on being tested, so well preserved they could not be distinguished from modern bones.

Evolutionists are usually determined that any fossil dinosaur bone must be millions of years old, yet (1) the discovery of 100% bone fossils, (2) and the discovery of red blood cells in another specimen, (3) and the discovery of thousands of dinosaur bones on the North Shore of Alaska, left unreported for 20 years because the discoverer thought they were the remains of bison - supports the Bible view - that dinosaurs were destroyed (mainly) by a Flood which occurred only about 4,500 years ago.

According to the Bible, no fossil is older than just a few thousand years.

Dinosaur fossils are very old - usually millions of years old.

Actual blood cells have been found in fossil tyrannosaurus rex bones - with traces of a red blood protein hemoglobin (which makes blood red and carries oxygen). The discovery was made by scientists from Montana State University in 1990.

Mary Schweitzer, the scientist most involved, found the cells when she and her colleagues were taking Turns looking at a slice of bone through a microscope. "The lab filled with murmurs of amazement" wrote Mary, "for I had focussed on something inside the vessels that none of us had ever noticed before : tiny round objects, translucent red with a dark centre. Then a colleague took one look at them and shouted, "You’ve got red blood cells!"

Mary Schweitzer confronted her boss, who told her to try and prove the objects were not red blood cells, which she tried to do with various tests, and could not.

The presence of hemoglobin indicates that the dinosaur remains are certainly not millions of years old, as all tissues would have long gone through normal decay processes. However, if the sample was a maximum of 4 and a half thousand years old, (the Bible chronology) there is some chance that the cells in some fossils are still intact.


Humans gradually learned how to speak over millions of years.

Humans have a speech centre in their brain which enables them to use a highly complex verbal language. The fact that we are born with a speech centre shows that it is already in our genes, so we inherit it from our parents.

Because acquired characteristics can only be inherited from genes, the speech centre must have been in the original parents of the human race. Genetic research has shown that genes are either dominant or recessive, but never spontaneously generated or added to, so it is impossible for a speech centre to slowly develop. We inherit the capacity to speak - never gradually develop the ability.

Humans are designed for speech. We have an ability which is unique amongst all other creatures. Our vocal chords are lower down in the throat (in adults) than any animal and the facility of a chest and throat, tongue and mouth, give us the ability to communicate with a vast array of sounds.

The different races represent different offspring from separate lines of evolution. This means that some ‘races’ in the world are more advanced than others - and therefore some races are inferior.

The Bible teaches no such thing, and it is supported by good science. For example, after tests were run on the year 2001, it was announced that humans are 99.9% identical. It is just the tiny 1% which makes us look different from each other.

Skin colour is determined by the amount of melanin one has - that is all.

All people from all cultures can intermarry and produce healthy children. This indicates that there is no significant genetic difference between humans.

Evolution is inherently a racist philosophy, while Christianity is the opposite.

In the Human Genome, there are only about 30,000 genes. This is sufficient to determine size, shape, colour and so on. In all the people tested so far no significant difference has been found in the genetic makeup of the DNA between any two people.

Interracial marriage is not condemned in the Bible. The only thing that God forbids in the Church is marriage between a Christian and a non-Christian.

The horse evolved over millions of years from a small creature like a badger to its present form.

No transitional forms have ever been found showing the evolution of the horse.

The so-called first horse (eohippus) is more like a rock badger, a hyrax, or coney.

Two other supposed fossils of the horse were found in the same layer, so there is no way of saying which might have come from which. What it does suggest is that both animals were living together at the same time before they were drowned and buried by sediment.

Other fossil horses are either incomplete or hardly convincing.

The claim is sometimes made that large horse fossils come from small ones on the evolutionary tree, but this is not proof of evolution. Rather it is proof that there were large horses and there were small horses, just as there are today.

The splint bones in a horse’s leg have been claimed as vestigial organs from an evolutionary past. However, splint bones have been found to :

- strengthen the horse’s leg because of the enormous stresses during galloping,

- form a protective groove that houses the suspensory ligament, a vital elastic brace used when the horse walks.

A brief history of the supposed evolution of the horse :

1. In 1841, the earliest so-called ‘horse’ fossil was discovered in clay around London. The scientist who unearthed it. Richard Owen, found a complete skull that looked like a fox's head with multiple back teeth as in hoofed animals. He called it hyracotherium because he saw no connection between it and the modern-day horse.

2. In 1874 another scientist, Kovalensky, attempted to establish a link between this small, fox-like creature and the modern horse. He dated the fox-like skull at 70 million years.

3. In 1879 an American fossil expert O. C. Marsh and Julian Huxley an evolutionist collaborated for a public lecture in New York. Marsh produced a schematic diagram which attempted to show how the horse’s feet, legs and teeth evolved.

Today many school textbooks show these diagrams, despite the fact that there is absolutely no evidence for the transitional stages.

But even if there was some credence in the theory, some facts ruin it. For example, fossils have been found at different places in different continents, in different positions in the strata, so there is no succession from oldest to youngest. Horses today and in the past have been found to vary in many ways, such as variations in the number of ribs and lumbar bones, so which way is evolution supposed to be moving. Horses today also vary in size, from the huge Clydesdale to the tiny Fallabella, so fossil sizes do not indicate anything but variation in size.

So why do textbooks today continue to use the horse as a prime example of evolution, when the whole schema is demonstrably false? Why are children taught something which is unscientific and based entirely on assumptions and theories?

Adam was a mythical figure, or symbolic invention, who never really lived, like a Greek god or character in a fairy tale.

Adam is a pivotal figure in Scripture. He is described as the first Adam, and the one who brought sin into the world. He also made it necessary for Jesus the Second Adam to atone for all humans, and then rise from the grave with the promise of complete redemption for fallen Man, and fallen creation. If Adam was just a myth, we would not be able to fully understand the work of Jesus.

If Adam and Eve were not real, then we ought to doubt whether their children were real too, and their children . . . and then we ought to doubt the first 11 chapters of Genesis, and so on. All the genealogies accept Adam as being real, so Cain and Abel (Gen.4:10, Luke 11:50-51) must be real too, since they were Adam and Eve’s non-mythical children. The genealogies of Matthew and Luke both accept that Adam was a literal person. Jesus was descended from Adam - it is impossible to be descended from a myth.

Because life arises spontaneously from random meetings of molecules, we should find life elsewhere in the universe.

Life is not simple. Even a single living cell is as complex as a whole city like New York. The chances of New York suddenly appearing after a few random bricks and pipes and things land together is about as likely as a cell coming about through random processes.

So far no sign of life has been found anywhere except on Earth.

If there is life elsewhere in the universe (on the same plane as our own) it was created, not accidental.

In 1996 rocks were found which most scientists believe came from Mars. Close examination of these rocks revealed what looked like fossil bacteria, yet no complete agreement has been reached. The contents of the rock, it has been argued, could be minerals, or substances leached into the porous rock, or contaminants from humans.

But even if bacteria were found in the rock it would not prove evolution because life always comes from life. Also, bacteria cannot evolve upwards because there is no known (natural) mechanism by which new information can be added to the DNA of a living creature.

It doesn’t matter what you believe about origins, as long as you believe in Jesus.

To a certain extent this is true, but of you don’t believe what the Bible says about origins, how can you fully trust what it says about anything else? If Genesis is rejected as unbelievable, or unreliable, then where do you stop?

Many Christians believe in evolution, but usually they have never thought through the consequences of evolution - where it leads to if accepted. It may look attractive from a distance, but close up it excludes God, or misrepresents Him, and it contradicts the plain statements of Genesis, and Jesus.

Genesis is the foundation on which the whole Bible sits. The whole ministry of Jesus was related to Genesis 1-11, and salvation makes logical sense when Genesis 1-11 is brought into it. Otherwise we have a chaotic message, in which death reigned before Adam and somewhere in the past some primate almost qualifies for heaven!

DNA in chimps and humans is very similar - this shows a common ancestry.

The similarity is about 96-99% depending on who is telling the story, so the figure is not measured accurately enough yet for anyone to be sure. However, even if the figures are reasonably accurate, we ought to remember that human DNA has some 3 billion nucleotides in sequence, and the whole sequence has never been inspected in detail so there may be huge differences between chimp and human in the actual sequence. The 3 billion nucleotides form four chemical compounds (C,G,A and T), which work together 3 at a time to determine 20 amino acids, which work together to make proteins.

The fact that chimps and humans share a common amount of DNA shows us that the same Creator used the same materials to make two different creatures - just as the same factory can use the same materials to make two different vehicles.

Similarity in DNA does not mean similarity in sequence, and the difference in sequence may make a huge difference. For example spot the difference between these two sentences :

Adam and Eve were free and holy, good and wise, until they listened to what the snake said.

Adam and Eve were free and holy, good and wise, until they listened to what the snakes said.

The one letter difference (less than 1%) between the two sentences makes a large difference in the meaning of the sentence. In the same way a tiny difference in the sequence on a DNA spiral can make a huge difference in the finished creature.

If humans and chimps were extremely different, and they in turn were extremely different from other creatures, we might conclude that God was not consistent, and also what would each creature eat? Biochemical similarity is important for survival.

Just 4% difference would mean something like 120 million base pairs, or, in terms of text, 12 million words (40 large books of information)

The amount of difference between chimps and humans is unbridgeable in evolutionary terms because we would need 120 million base pairs to be added, all in the right sequence - and all by accident.

Sedimentary layers represent many years - sometimes thousands of years. The more layers the more years.

Evidence does not support this view. For example when Mount St Helens erupted in Washington state the resulting mud and ash flows created sedimentary laminations several hundred metres high in just a few days.

When beach reclamation work in the Tweed river and Greenmount beach was being done, the sand and water was pumped on to the beach to build it up. The effect, after the huge deposits of water and sand had settled, was a beach consisting of laminated horizontal stripes.

Obviously, if a fine layer of sediment is laid down, another layer would need to be deposited very soon afterwards, or the earlier deposit would be disrupted by turbulence or some other intrusion.

Insects trapped in fossilised amber are millions of years old.

Insects found in amber, if they are the same species as insects alive today are always exactly the same, which indicates that no evolution has occurred.

The dating of amber, and insects found in amber, is based on an assumption.

No transitional forms between alleged ancestors to termites and present-day termites has ever been found. The fact that termites are discovered in amber means that termites in the past were trapped by amber. Neither the amber nor the insect can tell us when the event happened.

The Grand Canyon was formed very slowly, over millions of years, by a small river.

The reverse is actually the case. The Grand Canyon was formed very quickly, over a short time, by a large amount of water, of which the Colorado river is the last trickle.

A small river never lays down sediment evenly over 100,000 square miles. A small river always lays down sediment in uneven deposits as it cuts and turns, winds and spreads over the years. Many of the sedimentary layers in the Grand Canyon lie horizontally from one side of the Canyon to the other, indicating a single sheet of water over the entire distance, which sorted and dropped sediment evenly and quickly.

As seen through the probably sequence of events during the Great Flood, the Canyon conforms well to what might be expected. The layers were probably gouged through while reasonably soft, as God pushed the land upwards at the end of the Flood.

Rocks take millions of years to form.

When Mount St Helens erupted, thick layers of mud and ash quickly turned into hard rocks. For example, in three separate days of flow and deposit, a cliff was formed which is 200 metres (600 feet) high comprising solid rock.

A canyon was also formed in only one day (called engineer’s Canyon), when a mud flow swept through, cutting away the already deposited rocks ‘dam’.

Three quarters of the earth’s surface is covered by rock which was formed by water. Sometimes fossil tree trunks up to 15 metres (45 feet) tall are found standing upright, surrounded by rock. This indicates that the trees were buried quickly, before they had time to rot away.

Geologists working on the North Sea coast of England have discovered that soft mud has taken only a few years to turn into rock.

Fossil graveyards indicate that animals trapped by waterborne sediment were killed and buried before they could rot. This indicates rapid hardening of sediment.

Embryonic development shows evolution in progress.

The idea that as an embryo develops it goes through the supposed stages of evolution, from sea-creature to land-creature, was promoted by the scientist Ernst Haeckel. (Ernst also drew and documented in great detail a creature called the ‘moneron’ which did not exist!)

Haeckel’s drawings of various embryos were concocted from his imagination. He altered the facts to suit his evolutionary views and, unfortunately, despite being exposed by many creationist and non-creationists, his false ideas are still taught in schools and universities.

What is even worse is that people who continue to believe Haeckel’s lies consider the foetus in its earliest stage to be nothing but a fish. Some abortionists use the ‘fish stage’ argument to allay fears.

An offshoot of Haeckel’s work was to inspire many Germans with the ideas of superiority, nationalism and imperialism. His work helped to lay the foundation for the intense German militarism, which gave Hitler, the supreme evolutionist, a reason for wiping out the Jews.

All evolution requires is an increase in information.

Information is a feature of all living things. No useful information arises without an intelligent source. Useful information has meaning, and always moves towards a goal.

Intelligent information cannot arise by accident, or by random processes.

The intelligence input in all living things is a code called the DNA. Without this code nothing could become a living thing. Nature is divided between coded and non-coded matter, living and non-living.

The Hubble telescope has shown stars forming.

All the Hubble telescope has revealed are still shots of heavenly objects which have been interpreted as stars forming. Because the telescope cannot take movies, there is no way we can know for sure what is actually happening.

Many astronomers, who come from the evolutionary direction, expect to find stars forming because they already assume that the universe is continually renewing itself. This is why they claim that stars are ‘born’ and also why they interpret photographs to suit their beliefs.

Many incredibly delicate things would have to happen in order to cause a star to form. First you would need a cloud of hydrogen, which would then need to be compressed from the right directions in order to compress it exactly the right amount. Having started its collapse its thermonuclear fusion might begin.

But in order to cause the compression of this hypothetical cloud of hydrogen its seems that the only available mechanism is an exploding star - so we have to have stars in order to form stars. This brings us back to the first cause - where did the original stars come from?

Many stars have been seen ‘on the way out’ - exploding and dying. These supernova are not as numerous as evolutionists predict however. A supernova produces a dust cloud about 300,000 light years after some 120,000 years. If the universe is as old as evolutionists say, we should be able to find many supernova dust clouds still expanding, (at least 7000 of them), yet we do not. What we find is a few dust clouds of a small size, still expanding - this indicates that the universe is not much older than 10,000 years.

Stars take millions of years to change.

A team of astronomers (including Bengt Gustafsson at McDonald Observatory in Texas and Martin Asplund of the Uppsala Observatory in Sweden) have observed a star called Sakurai’s Object in the constellation of Sagittarius. In only a few years the star has changed from a white dwarf to a bright yellow supergiant. This means it has gone from about the size of the Earth to 80 times wider than the sun - an increase of 8,000 times its original width, and the volume has increased by over 500,000 million times its original volume.

Neandertal man was a primitive form of human.

Remains of Neandertal sites have revealed (in Gibraltar) that they ate roasted pistachio nuts, olives, rabbit, goat and venison grilled over a fire.

Despite the claimed age of Neadertals of 40,000 years, the plant material at the Gibraltar site is easily identified as to its species. Because of the rate at which plant material decays, this indicates that the dating is out by many thousands of years.

Neandertal artefacts include a stone hearth in a Suffolk forest with what look like carving knives and kebabs.

A Neandertal bone flute was found in Slovenia, which is based on the same seven note scale used in Western music.

Neandertals were post-Flood humans who managed to survive the climate changes and migrations after the dispersal from the tower of Babel.

Neandertal remains in Europe have uncovered bone ornaments and sophisticated stone tools.

German scientists have found perfectly preserved wooden spears, in company with other artefacts, which suggest that Neandertals had sophisticated hunting, planning, designing and manufacturing skills. A U.K. archaeologist was quoted as being "speechless" at the implications of the find, but he was also surprised because he believed the remains were about 400,000 years old. Well of course his dating was based on an assumption. The Bible puts the Neadertals as the descendants of Noah, who were descendants of Noah’s ever-growing family, who spread across the world from about 4000 BC onwards, who were not city-dwellers, but people who used their wisdom to make a living out of hunting.

Some Neandertal remains have shown that they suffered from rickets - caused by lack of Vit. D - causing bow-legs and swollen joints. Vit. D comes from fish oils, milk and dairy products, so these people must have lacked these foods. It also comes via the skin from sunlight. Neadertals lived after the Great Flood, when the Ice Age was retreating from Europe - a time of poor sunlight, snow and cold weather.

There is some evidence which suggests that Neandertals had a form of writing.

They buried their dead apparently with ceremony and arranged flowers around the bodies. One grave in the Shanidar cave, in the Zagros mountains in Iraq had the pollen from yarrow, cornflowers, St Barnaby’s thistle, ragwort, grape hyacinth, hollyhock and woody horsetail. Most of these plants have herbal and medicinal properties, which implies a knowledge of medicine.

Deep underground, in a cave in southern France once used by Neandertals, a structure built out of pieces of stalactite was found. The structure implies the use of fire, communication, and co-operation. Also found was bituminous glue used to fix tools to handles.

Primitive bacteria found in hot pools show that life could have originated in hot water.

For a start, these bacteria are not ‘simple’ or ‘primitive’ at all. Secondly, all these present bacteria come from other bacteria (the family tree), so the original parent is not there to be examined. It is all assumption to suppose that some time in the distant past a clump of molecules accidentally produced the first one.

The fact that these bacteria are able to live in such hot water actually points to design rather than evolution. High temperatures are usually lethal to living cells - RNA and DNA disintegrate quickly when heated. These bacteria have been designed specifically to live in harsh conditions.

Drug-resistant germs show that evolution operates on the small scale as well as the large.

So-called ‘super germs’ are resistant to almost every type of antibiotic known to Man. Some of these bacteria have actually been found thriving in bottles of disinfectant. The more antibacterial chemicals that are used, the more resistant some of these germs become. However, for these germs to be developing or evolving we would expect to find new information in their DNA, but no new information is ever found.

The 'super bugs' already had the potential to resist the drugs. If 1 in every 100 million has a resistance to a certain chemical, that 1 will soon multiply into millions.

Bacteria can pass immunity on to other bacteria. They do this by inserting a little loop of DNA called a plasmid into another bacteria. In this way a whole population of bacteria can become resistant to a drug - and no new information has been added.

Mutation may produce immunity, but again there is no gain in information - only deformation or loss of already present information.

'Super bugs' are not super at all, they are just germs which have adapted to an altered environment. If these same germs were released outside, into the soil, they would quickly die - just as some dogs would die in the wild, or some hybrid fish, or some specially bred birds.

One useful mutation is seedless oranges, yet such a mutation is not positive, because without seeds the orange cannot reproduce.

Radiocarbon dating methods prove that the Earth is millions of years old.

Carbon dating has nothing to do with millions of years, Its upper maximum limit is about 100,000 theoretical years because it is a method which can only date things which contain organic carbon - unlike most fossil bones.

Carbon dating is riddled with assumptions. Usually the results are adjusted to fit with the assumptions.

Carbon dating (or radio carbon, or radiometric) methods do not generally agree with each other. If dates are in agreement they are published, while dates which disagree are held back, so the public gets the idea that carbon dating is consistently accurate.

Carbon dating has been shown many times to be incredibly faulty. For example wood found under lava which came from an eruption on Rangitoto was already known to be about 200 years old, yet potassium-argon dating put it at half a million years. So what was it - under a thousand years or 250,000 years? If dating methods are this far out with things this young, how reliable are they when they are used to give ages for things supposed to be millions of years old?

Evolution and Genesis can be fitted together so we can believe both.

If one writes down the sequence in which evolution is supposed to have occurred, and then writes down the sequence of genesis, there is NO WAY the two can be fitted together.

If evolution is true, then there is no Creator, and life ‘made itself’, in which case death reigned long before humans appeared. If that is the case then Adam, if he ever really existed, was not the first sinner - whatever ‘sin’ is. If that is so then the human race may not need salvation. If so, then Jesus is not relevant except perhaps as a good example of morals. If evolution is true then there is no need for a God, and Christianity becomes irrelevant, since Man may be well-behaved without needing any external authority to refer to. (There are variations to this one but they all add up to the same thing - evolution is an exclusive club to which no Christians are ever invited)

Jesus believed in creation. Jesus Himself created many things - wine, money, new limbs . . .

The first humans must have had ‘belly buttons’ because all humans are born.

This is like the chicken or the egg problem. A chicken must lay eggs in order to survive, but an egg must be laid by a chicken in order to supply the next chicken. In the same way a human needs a human in order to produce another human, but how far back do you go before you find the original human?

The Bible says God created the first human. Adam and Eve did not have belly buttons because they were never born. Their children were the first humans to be born, and from these children the entire human race has sprung.

It is impossible to theorise a logical process by which both male and female humans could have arisen over millions of years through random events, and then add on the further complication of sexual reproduction processes, the formation of the womb, and birth processes including brain development, blood circulation, the development of first and second teeth, and other important changes after birth.

One other large problem is that for any change to occur, useful new information has to be added to the DNA, and this is not happening today due to the fact that genes never blend their information but instead they diversify it. Dominant genes overcome recessive genes, but both types of gene remain intact from generation to generation.

Because life evolves under suitable conditions, there should be life elsewhere in the universe.

Life cannot evolve by any known natural process, since all life needs first an external input of information (a code to control non-living molecules), and second the regular addition of new useful information.

SETI - search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence - has found only two likely suspects so far : the microwave oven downstairs at Parkes Observatory, and signals from Earth-bound satellites - but whether or not there is intelligent life on Earth is a moot question.

The conditions necessary for life to evolve - should the Theory of Evolution be taken seriously for a moment - are incredibly extensive. All the right chemicals at all the right temperatures, in all the right quantities, meeting at all the right angles, producing all the right things at all the right times, making all the right substances in all the right quantities, producing all the right reactions and building all the right amino acids with all the right types of molecule, with all the right additional information . . . . the chances of all the right conditions being met are so small as to be non-existent.

The idea that life exists on other planets in other parts of the universe is based on the assumption that life can evolve by random processes. This has been shown, by many different areas of science, to be impossible. So if life cannot evolve here on earth it certainly cannot evolve anywhere else.

The evidence for an intelligent designer behind life is clearly written in the DNA code - a code which could not have formed by random processes.

The optimum conditions for life to continue are also very complex. Our Earth provides an optimum place for most life in most cases. We have a star which is the right size and distance from the planet, and which is stable enough to provide safe, steady heat. We have a planet which orbits at the optimum speed and distance from the star. We have an abundance of liquid water, which is essential for the processes involved in living cells. We have a non-poisonous atmosphere which also absorbs and deflects harmful forms of light such as x-rays, ultraviolet and gamma. We have a magnetic field strong enough to deflect the solar wind - a stream of high-energy charged particles. We also have plenty of oxygen in the right proportions to meet life’s needs.

SETI costs the American taxpayer about $10 per year. This would provide emergency food for 102,000 starving Rwandan children, or give 140,000 Third World families enough crop seeds to become self-sufficient, or give 64.2 million measles vaccinations . . .

The whole universe is continually renewing itself and growing more complex.

The second law of thermodynamics totally contradicts this assumption. While astronomers hunt in vain for stars being born, the actual view they have is of stars burning up their fuel and dying. While biologists point at the birth of plants and the growth of trees from a simple cell to a complex tree, the creationist points at the DNA and genes inside the cell which produce the tree - in other words, the complexity is a temporary thing, a passing moment, an illusion. All living things eventually die, thus fulfilling the second law.

The house that Charles Darwin lived in for 40 years until he died in 1882 is now under threat of dereliction. Iron is rusting, bricks are crumbling, floors are sagging and carpets are disintegrating.. Once cleanly finished and attractive surfaces are now cracking and fading and peeling. The complexity of Darwin’s house is progressing towards greater randomness. Given enough time and nothing would be left. Like Darwin, the house is subject to the second law and will soon return to the dust from which it came.

The whole universe is like a great clock which is gradually unwinding. Galaxies are disintegrating, stars are burning out, radioactive elements are separating into simpler substances, DNA is breaking down, all life is ageing and perishing. All organised things eventually become disorganised. There is not a single area in the entire universe which anyone can point to as an example of the opposite.

The evolution of various creatures is clearly shown in their ‘family trees’.

Usually these tree take the form of a number of supposedly related creatures lined up along the top in a row, then dotted lines connecting these known insects with assumed ancestors. The dotted lines (sometimes solid lines) represent the assumed family relations, back to some unknown ancestor.

The fact is none of these lines have any evidence to support them. Evolutionists think in terms of evolution from many different sources, while Creationists think in terms of separate creation from a few very specific sources. Just because certain creatures are similar does not mean that they came from some common progenitor - i.e. Monkeys and humans, butterflies and ladybirds, worms and slugs, lizards and crocodiles, birds and flying fish.

The Creationist family tree starts with (for example) the original dog ‘kind’ and then shows the varieties of ‘dog’ which have sprung from it (wolves, jackals, foxes etc). The Evolutionist family tree however, starts with a bunch of similar creatures and then leaps off into an assumed trunk, naming non-existent creatures as ancestors, which have no basis in any fossil evidence, and presumes some dubious ancestor which has never been found in any shape or form.

Rock usually takes millions of years to form.

Mr John Heffner sent a cross-section of a pipe to the Answers in Genesis people around 1998, which showed solid rock filling the pipe to about 80% of its diameter. The pipe was taken from the Sonat Minerals flowline natural gas well in Lousiana, USA, in the Austin Chalk formation drilled in 1997. The pipe took only three months to fill with rock - consisting of the 84% calcium carbonate - the stuff of which stalactites are made.



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